3 edition of Surface-based observations of contrail occurrence over the U.S., April 1993-April 1994 found in the catalog.
Surface-based observations of contrail occurrence over the U.S., April 1993-April 1994
1997 by National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Langley Research Center, National Technical Information Service, distributor in Hampton, Va, Springfield, VA .
Written in English
|Other titles||Surface based observations of contrail occurrence over the U.S., April 1993-April 1994.|
|Statement||Patrick Minnis, J. Kirk Ayers, Steven P. Weaver.|
|Series||NASA reference publication -- 1404.|
|Contributions||Ayers, J. Kirk., Weaver, Steven P., Langley Research Center.|
|The Physical Object|
Contrail Data Analysis Dr. Dave Duda, Hampton University Method •Compare GLOBE obs to: • RUC (Rapid Update Cycle; Benjamin et al.) • ARPS (Advanced Regional Prediction System; Xue et al.) • Initial comparison for April • GLOBE observations of contrails. NASAs own experiments (right) show persisting contrails over a large range of calculated humidities, even down to 10%. Myth #3 – Long lasting contrails have appeared in “parallel lines”, “grid” and “X” formations, which are not normal, so must be “chemtrails. False. Well, the last bit is false. Posts about contrail written by ch. Contrails are a result of water vapour, produced as a product of combustion, being ejected from the aircraft engines (→ article) When a contrail forms near the sun, it’s possible to see a rather beautiful ‘rainbow effect’, as in this example.
1, 2-Dichlorobenzene-mediated hepatocellular oxidative stress in fischer-344 and sprague-dawley rats
Spectroscopy of new materials
water relations of terrestial arthropods.
passion of Our Lord
folk arts of Japan.
Six members of Parliament discuss European security
A banker of Bankersville
Surface observers stationed at 19 U.S. Air Force Bases and Army Air Stations recorded the daytime occurrence of contrails and cloud fraction on an hourly basis for the period April through April Each observation uses one of four main categories to report contrails as unobserved, non-persistent, persistent, and indeterminate.
Additional. Surface observers stationed at 19 U.S. Air Force Bases and Army Air Stations recorded April 1993-April 1994 book daytime occurrence of contrails and cloud fraction on an hourly basis for the period April through.
Surface-Based Observations of Contrail Occurrence Frequency Over the U.S. April - April Article (PDF Available) January with 23 Reads How we measure 'reads'.
Get this from a library. Surface-based observations of contrail occurrence over the U.S., April April [Patrick Minnis; J Kirk Ayers; Steven P Weaver; Langley Research Center.]. The following list contains the latest formal publications by Patrick Minnis as of 09/03/ J.
K.; and Weaver, S. P.: Surface-Based Observations of Contrail Occurrence Frequency Over the U.S., April - April Minnis et al. () April 1993-April 1994 book the frequency of contrail occurrence over the United States based on a year of hourly surface observations taken at U.S.
Air Force (USAF) bases (AFBs) during – They found a distinctive seasonal cycle and diurnal variations of contrail occurrence that were related to jet traffic by: This book examines how chemtrails and ionispheric heaters like the High-frequency Active Auroral Research Project (HAARP) in Alaska services a full-spectrum dominance.
This "Revolution in Military Affairs" needs an atmospheric medium to assure wireless access to the bodies and brains of anyone on Earth--from heat-seeking missiles to a form of.
This study determined the frequency of contrail occurrence per 1° × 1° grid cells for each of the four midseason months. Surface-based observations of contrail occurrence frequency April 1993-April 1994 book the U.S., April –April NASA Ref. Publ. Cited by: The Santa Fe Contrail (Aerosol) Journal (NASA), in his report entitled “Surface-Based Observations of Contrail Occurrence Frequency Over the U.S., April –AprilNASA RP, December ” apparently has coined a new phrase to describe a new cloud type as “cirrus contrailus”.
Il Progetto SC è un Progetto di Ricerca indipendente su: Scie Surface-based observations of contrail occurrence over the U.S. condensazione persistenti. Scie chimiche. Surface-Based Observations of Contrail Occurrence Over the U.S., April - April (NASA ). Minnis, P., J.K.
Ayers and S.P. Weaver, Surface-based observations of contrail occurrence frequency over the U.S., April — AprilNASA Reference PublicationNational Aeronautics and Space Administration, Hampton, VA, USA, 79 pp.
().Author: Peter Wiesen, J. Kleffmann, R. Kurtenbach. Search the history of over billion web pages on the Internet. search Search the Wayback Machine. Featured texts All Books All Texts latest This Just In Smithsonian Libraries FEDLINK (US) Genealogy Lincoln Collection Full text of "Contrails, Surface-based observations of contrail occurrence over the U.S.
Air Force cadet handbook.". Contrails (condensation trails) are line-shaped clouds produced by aircraft engine exhaust. They can be permanent and mistaken for natural clouds. Pictures of contrails and cirrus clouds, caused by aviation.
Air traffic may influence weather, Surface-based observations of contrail occurrence over the U.S. change, sunlight, radiative forcing, global warming, greenhouse effect.
Foto's van vliegtuigstrepen, vliegtuigwolken en luchtvaartcirrus (cirrus. b, Annual cycle of the frequency of possible persistent contrail occurrence over Herstmonceux; that is, the number of days each month with persistent contrail-favourable conditions at.
Minnis, P., " An Overview of Satellite Observations of Contrails and Their Radiative Impact on Climate ". Atmospheric Effects of Aviation Project Annual Mtg., Virginia Beach, VA, June July 1.
Minnis, P., K. Ayers and D. Doelling, " Contrails Over the U. and Their Potential Impact on the Radiation Budget". The CONTRAIL project is financially supported by the Research Fund by Global Environmental Research Coordination System of the Ministry of the Environment in Japan.
A NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF A CONTRAIL L. LEVI(OV, M. BOIN, L KORNBLUEH AND E. RASCHKE GKSS Research Center, Max-Planck-Str D Geesthacht, Germany Abstract In this study the formation of a contrail from an aircraft flying near the tropo- pause is simulated using a three-dimensional mesoscale atmospheric model including a very complex scheme of parameterized cloud Author: L.
Levkov, M. Boin, L Kornblueh, E. Raschke. Figure 1: Air traffic and contrail occurrence over Herstmonceux. Figure 2: Annual mean longwave, shortwave, and net radiative forcing due to persistent contrails over Herstmonceux.
References. Kärcher, B., R. Busen, A. Petzold, F.P. Schröder, U. Schumann, and E.J. Jensen, a: Physicochemistry of aircraft-generated liquid aerosols, soot, and.
Tag: Santa Fe SANTA FE PRESENTATION. Posted by. Carnicom Institute. Posted on. (NASA), in his report entitled “Surface-Based Observations of Contrail Occurrence Frequency Over the U.S., April –AprilNASA RP, December ” apparently has coined a new phrase to describe a new cloud type as “cirrus contrailus”.
Contrail Formation. If the air is very dry, a contrail will not form behind the plane. If the air is somewhat moist, a contrail will form immediately behind the aircraft and make a bright white line that lasts for a short while (a short-lived contrail). Persistent contrails.
Risk assessment of contrail formation using AIRS, MOZAIC and AERO2k databases N. Lamquin*, C.J (ICG2), Jülich, Germany Keywords: potential contrail occurrence, satellite observations ABSTRACT: Ice supersaturation is a condition for contrails to persist and to induce additional from commercial airplanes measurements over the period.
Near the close of WW2 jets were used. It was, of course, very important for these jets to avoid detection. NASA and the USAF began to research methods of predicting the occurrence of contrails.
Contrails is a small handbook issued to new cadets entering the United States Air Force contains information on United States Air Force and United States military history; Academy history; notable Academy graduates; aircraft, satellites, and munitions in the current U.S.
Air Force inventory; transcripts of important national documents such as the Preamble to the Constitution and the History: Academy history, Air Training Officers, Lowry Air. Research highlights Important parameters for the sensitivity of global contrail radiative forcing are: The detection threshold for calibrating contrail coverage to observations.
The mean optical depth. An upgraded parameterisation of potential contrail coverage. The observation region used for calibration. An upgraded model version featuring improved model climate and the contrail particle by: cirrus cloud, to its microphysical properties.
Well into the book, contrails were mentioned. The authors implied that contrails could be considered to be cirrus clouds, yet no such definitive categorization was offered (Lynch, Sassen, Starr, & Stephens, ).
5 Nunez: Cirrus Clouds and Contrails: A. Contrails show up on the image as white streaks, similar to how they appear from a surface view. When you view this image of UTC, notice the individual contrails labeled A and B. In this image 30 minutes later ( UTC), both these contrails exist, as well as others.
By UTC, these contrails. Observations of the ice crystal shapes during the early phase of contrail formation and beyond are sparse. Observations of contrail crystal growth over a 1-h period have shown that the mean crystal diam-eters reach about 8 μm, and concentrations resulting from plume mixing are.
Patrick Minnis has written: 'Surface-based observations of contrail occurrence over the U.S' 'Surface-based observations of contrail occurrence over the U.S., April April ' -- subject(s. Created Date: 1/6/ PM. On days with outbreaks the day/night temperature difference was diminished by about 6 °F ( °C) in the U.S.
South and 5 °F ( °C) in the Midwest.  Further studies have shown that the radiative forcing due to contrail cirrus is the largest known radiative forcing component associated with air traffic, and is larger than the total Altitude: 7, to 12, m, (25, to 40, ft).
contrails based on ground-based observations [Liou et al., ]. Evaluation of the contrail influence on global climate will require use of satellite observations.
Assess- ment of potential future contrail climate impacts based on projected air traffic requires a knowledge of the en- vironmental conditions required for contrail formation. Patrick Minnis, J. Kirk Ayers and Steven P. Weaver, Surface-Based Observations of Contrail Occurrence Frequency Over the U.S., April AprilNASA RP, Decemberpp.
83, (4MB) - Pages: The global distribution of radiative forcing by persistent linear contrails has been estimated for and using global contrail cover computed for aircraft fuel consumption scenarios for the two periods, a detailed prescription of the radiative properties of the Earth's surface and the cloudy atmosphere, and flux computations with an established radiative transfer model.
The computed. Predicting Contrails Using an Appleman Chart [Student] Background: Military planners have been interested in condensation trail (contrail) forecasts since World War II. Contrails can make any aircraft easy to locate by enemy forces, and no amount of modern stealth technology can hide an aircraft if it leaves a persistent contrail in its Size: KB.
How high are contrail clouds. Wiki User 1 feet. Related Questions. Asked in Meteorology and Weather, Clouds, The Solar System What is the classification for the contrials. Contrails appear in the sky as workers leave the Launch Control Center after the launch of the space shuttle Discovery in Cape Canaveral, Fla., on Monday April 5, Above the Contrails.
climatology results are supported by the all-U.S. averages of contrail outbreak UT conditions [climate diagnostics (CDNs)] previously determined for early–mid-September periods of – Moreover, a comparison of these CDNs with those derived for nearby thick natural clouds, including cirrus, helps to.
Contrail is fully web-based and enables users to view, manage, and analyze real-time and historical data in one place. Contrail is easily configurable for diverse users, providing data that may have to meet and serve the needs of many different applications—whether for flood early warning, dam safety operations, road-weather condition.
United States Environmental Protection Agency Air and Radiation (J) EPAF September Contrails Factsheet Summary This fact sheet describes the formation, occurrence, and effects of "condensation trails" or "contrails.".
East-West Highway, SSMC1, 8th Floor Silver Spring, MD Phone: Fax: Members of the news media may contact NESDIS.PRO-SCIENCE These sources consist of legitimate science or download pdf evidence based through the use of credible scientific sourcing.
Legitimate science follows the scientific method, is unbiased and does not use emotional words. These sources also respect the consensus of experts in the given scientific field and strive to publish peer reviewed science. Some sources in this category may have a.ebook Bernhardt and Carleton looked at temperature observations made at weather station sites in two areas of the U.S., one in the South in January and the other in the Midwest in April.